The vast majority of patients with breast symptoms have benign pathology
or aberrations of normal development and involution (ANDI)

Although not cancer, these conditions can cause significant distress and discomfort. Some of the common conditions we see and treat include:

Fibro-adenomas are benign breast tumours, that occur in the breast tissue and are fairly common in young women. The lumps are generally painless. Some of these lumps require surgical removal.

Fibro-cystic breast disease
This condition is characterised by swollen, sensitive and nodular breasts and most commonly occurs in post-menopausal women.

Mastalgia (breast pain)
Mastalgia, or breast pain, can be caused by a number of factors, including menstruation, infection, injury or growths on the breast.

Peri-ductal mastitis
Mastitis is a condition that causes inflammation in the breast tissue. The condition is often caused by a bacterial infection, and is most common in breastfeeding women. The condition can be treated with prescribed medication but sometimes require surgery.


Duct ectasia
Duct ectasia is a condition that causes abnormal nipple discharge, as well as inflammation and blockages in the ducts underneath the nipples. The condition may lead to infection, which can be treated with prescribed medication and occasionally, surgery.

Pathological nipple discharge with intra-ductal papillomatosis
A spontaneous, watery or bloody nipple discharge could be indicative of an intra-ductal papilloma (small growth in in a breast duct) or an early sign of cancer. This requires a small surgical procedure called a micro-ductectomy (removal of the involved duct).

Phylloides tumours
Phylloides tumours are abnormal lumps of tissue that develop in the breast. In most cases, these lumps are benign, and can be surgically removed.

Mammary fibromatosis
A mammary fibromatosis is a type of tumour that develops in the breast tissue. The tumour is non-cancerous, although it can spread to other areas of tissue. The tumour should be surgically removed and the patient followed up closely as this condition is associated with various other clinical conditions and have the tendency to recur.

Intra-mammary lipomas
Intra-mammary lipomas are tumours that occur in the soft tissue of the breast. They are generally harmless, and do not cause any uncomfortable symptoms.

Axillary breast tissue
Axillary breast tissue refers to excess tissue that develops around the area of the armpits. The tissue can cause the area to appear lumpy, and in some cases it can become swollen and sensitive. Axillary breast tissue can be surgically removed.

Accessory breast tissue
Accessory breast tissue refers to a condition in which abnormal breast tissue develops, often in the form of a mass. The tissue can become swollen and sensitive, in which case surgery may be recommended. Sometimes accessory breast tissue (including nipples) may develop along the so-called embryological milk-line. Many patients find this aesthetically displeasing and it can be removed surgically.

This condition refers to the enlargement of the breast gland in men. The condition typically occurs as a result of a hormonal imbalance and can be treated with specially formulated medication. In isolated cases, excess breast tissue can be removed surgically for aesthetic reasons.